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Kidney stones are made of salts and minerals in the urine that stick together to form small pebbles. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball depending on patient.

They may stay in the kidneys or travel out of body through the urinary tract.

What causes kidney stones?

Kidney stones form when the normal balance of water, salts, minerals, and other matter normally present in urine changes. This can happen if a person does not get enough fluids - a condition known as dehydration. It may also happen if patient eats foods high in oxalate such as dark green vegetables. Kidney stones may also be inherited, meaning that if other people in your family have had them, you may have them too. Most kidney stones are calcium-type and they form when the calcium levels in your urine change. Once you become dehydrated, the salts, minerals, and other substances in the urine can stick together and form a stone. This is the most common cause of kidney stones that you can prevent. Beside this, many medical conditions can affect the urine balance and cause stones to form. People who have inflammatory bowel disease or who have had surgery on their intestines, may not absorb fat from their intestines as they normally should. This changes the way the intestines process calcium and other minerals, and it may lead to problems with kidney stones. If you eat foods high in oxalate, you may be more likely to get kidney stones. This may be even more of a problem if you do not get enough calcium in your diet. In rare cases, a person forms kidney stones because the parathyroid glands produces too much hormone. This hormone induces higher calcium levels which may possibly cause calcium kidney stones to form.

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