It has been popular for a while to have a perfect body image, which often includes very thin model-like bodies. This trend has been followed by many people, but unfortunately, in some of them to such an extent that it causes metabolic and psychological disorders. New diet plans emerge every day and only a few of them have all that is needed for proper functioning of the human body. Others either have a lower than required amount of one or more types of nutrients, or are very restrictive in terms of caloric intake. Both have many disadvantages and some of them are described here.
Low Carbohydrate Diet
Carbohydrates are always restricted in weight loss diets, and they should be to some degree. However, extreme limitations are unjustified and even harmful. The human organism actually uses carbohydrates to make non-essential amino-acids – building blocks of proteins which constituent our muscles, but also have important functions in the organism as enzymes, coagulation factors, and blood proteins.
People practicing low-carbohydrate diet plans usually regain their weight very fast, as their organism has adapted to their lower intake. Once the intake of carbohydrates returns to normal levels, you will actually gain weight faster than you lost it. Another important thing about extremely low carbohydrate diets stems from the misconception that fat can be lost in a short period of time. That is not exactly true. In the lack of carbohydrates, it is easier for the human organism to use proteins from the muscles as energy sources, and only after about two weeks of diet does the lipolysis (degradation of fat tissue) really begin. Until that time, muscle mass will certainly decrease.
Extremely Low Fat Diet
Every person who wants to lose weight should avoid food rich in fats, but even when cutting fats, we must not exaggerate. There are components of fat called essential fatty acids, and they include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which can only be found in fat-rich foods, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, walnuts, and soy oi, and the term “essential” means that the organism cannot compose them and that they need to be consumed. These fatty acids are necessary for proper functioning of our nervous system, as building components of the myelin – the substance forming the myelin layer around the nerve fibers, which acts like an electrical insulator. Furthermore, the functioning of the immune system and its most important mediators – interleukins and leukotriens highly depends on the essential fatty acids.
Low Protein Diet
Fortunately, low protein diets are no longer propagated, as their harmful effects were more than evident. These diets do not promote fat loss, and in addition, they lower muscle mass and introduce dangerous metabolic changes. In plain terms, proteins are the chains consisted of 20 different types of amino acids. Ten of them are essential amino acids, so they must be ingested. The malnutrition disorder caused by low protein intake is called kwashiorkor, and it is characterized by generalized swelling.
Low Caloric Intake
The smartest way to lose weight would be to lower caloric intake, but keep optimal proportions of the important nutrients. However, persons suffering from eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, tend to consume too few calories, which in turn affects their health. These persons have low energy and often suffer from severe psychological and physical illnesses, because of their eating habits.
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