The most common cause of testicle loss is trauma. However, your testicle may also be removed as part of a castration or cancer treatment. The loss of a testicle can cause severe changes in the metabolic system, sexual functioning, and other bodily functions. 
To prevent those changes, a testicle transplantation can be considered as one of the treatment options.
However, transplanting an organ is always a risky procedure. Allogenic transplantation (human-to-human testicle transplant is an example) requires detailed medical examination and preparation. Finding an organ donor with a compatible organ sometimes takes months or even years. Even if the procedure went well and the recipient’s body accepted the organ, life-long immunosuppressive therapy is needed to avoid the organ from being rejected at some point in the life of the recipient. This makes the body more susceptible to infections.
With cheap and safe hormonal replacement therapy at hand, a testicle transplant is still not considered a good treatment choice even for those patients who lost both testes (due to trauma for example). Bilateral testicular carcinoma cases are rare.
One testicle is enough for proper reproductive and endocrine function. In simple words, one testicle will produce enough sperm and enough testosterone to secure reproduction and enough testosterone.
Why do we have two of them? You may ask… Any doctor could provide you with a perfectly logical explanation as to why we have two eyes. But, why do we have two testes? This is less clear.
Having this in mind, I guess the answer to the question about testicle transplant for the sake of aesthetics is clear.
The first testicular implant was used in 1941 and in the years that followed a number of different materials were used. Finding the right testicular implant is not just about finding the right size. It should “feel” like a real testicle too and it needs to be safe. Testicular implants used in the US are saline filled implants, while in the Europe silicone implants dominate in clinical practice (the reason is that silicone implants are not FDA approved).
Why would anyone need a testicular implant that has no other purpose but a cosmetic effect? Well… Reducing psychological impact after the loss of a testicle is of great importance to patients. Sexual health is quite important for men, and in some cultures of the East, any kind of defect in the appearance or the function of male genitalia is considered an ultimate humiliation that leads to questions about the worth of life .
Although overall satisfaction of patients that got testicular implants after the removal of their own (because of testicular cancer, for example) is high, a considerable dissatisfaction with the size, consistency, intrascrotal position and shape has been noticed .
Although there is no functional reason for mandatory testicle transplantation, the surgery can be done if the patient has physiological symptoms. The only problem is that the perfect testicular implant won’t be available anytime soon, but available implants are not that bad at all. They can serve their purpose and provide confidence.
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