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Although mucus discharge from your anus can be due to several conditions, the most likely diagnosed that physicians will first consider with this presentation is bowel endometriosis.  

Endometriosis occurs when tissue that is supposed to be located in the uterus grows in other parts of our bodies instead. This endometrial tissue responds just like the tissue in the uterus during menstrual cycles and will grow and become more prevalent during times of high levels of estrogen. Symptoms worsen during periods of ovulation and may also be associated with periods of abdominal pain and infertility. 

Bowel endometriosis is quite common in society and can be found in up to 37 percent of patients who already have endometriosis. It will generally be found in the sigmoid colon, the cecum, or along the walls of the anus. Due to their location, this disease may not necessarily present with the same type of pain that is common with uterine endometriosis. If these tissues are found in subserosal fat where nerves are absent, patients may feel no pain at all. If these tissue lesions are larger in nature, they may cause symptoms like bloody stool discharge, diarrhea or constipation, abdominal bloating, pain with discharge and most notably, high amounts of mucus discharge

If some of these symptoms are also what you may be experiencing, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A simple physical examination or patient history will not be adequate to make this diagnosis, and more invasive examinations will be necessary. Although X-ray images and Ultrasonography both can visualize large lesions in bowel segments, the best option to locate these lesions is through MRI testing. Some studies suggest that transvaginal ultrasonography are also possible to find the infiltration and depth of some of the smaller lesions that are possible. 

Depending on the size of the lesions, intervention can range from waiting for the disease to get worse to requiring options like hormonal therapy or even surgery. When considering hormonal therapy, the most important thing to determine is the degree of intestinal stenosis that may be present due to the bowel endometriosis. If the level of stenosis (narrowing) is found to be less than 60 percent, then hormonal therapy can be used safely. This will generally be in the form of progestins and will help control the growth of tissue and reduce mucosal discharge.[1

In multiple studies, however, surgery is what is ultimately needed when patients have the symptoms. Hormonal therapy reduces symptoms but will not reverse the growth of the tissue so glands can still be producing high levels of hormones. When surgery becomes the necessary intervention, patients can either require small laser removal or may need segments of their bowel to be completely removed if the endometriosis is too substantial.  

Although this is an invasive surgery, this can also benefit women wishing to become pregnant later on in life. In one investigation, it was determined that 45.5 percent of women that required this surgery were able to get pregnant after the surgery. It is amazing considering that the chances of pregnancy with endometriosis are almost impossible without therapy.[2]

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