As we mentioned in previous articles during the last stage of the menstrual cycle normally a layer of endometriosis lining in the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood but instead some of the endometriosis tissues growing somewhere in the body causing endometriosis. Endometriosis also reacts to hormonal signals of the monthly menstrual cycle by building up tissue, breaking it, and eliminating it through the menstrual period. If all other treatments have failed to treat your endometriosis located at the abdomen or they have become malignant, then abdominal hysterectomy may be necessary. In this article, we will discuss what is abdominal hysterectomy?

I. Definition
Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure used to remove the tubes, cervix through the abdomen via a surgical horizontal or vertical incision.

II. How it works
There are 2 types of incision in this operation
a) Horizontal incision
Horizontal incision provides better cosmetic result, because the scar is small but dose not provide your doctor a clear visual assessment of the abdominal cavity.
b) Vertical incision
Most of the time, if there are large fibroid or extensive endometriosis or cancer, your surgeon wants to have clear view at the abdominal cavity to see if cancer has been spread then the vertical incision is necessary.
After making incision through the skin, fat, fascia and muscles of the abdominal wall, the uterus and cervix are separated from other tissues, then the blood vessels supplying blood to the uterus and cervix are clamped. Once all the attachments and blood vessels have been separated from the uterus and cervix, the uterus and cervix are removed. After the abdominal cavity has been carefully inspected, each layer is sutured back.

III. Risks
a) Infection of the incision area.
b) Urinary infection caused by medical instrument that may damage the bladder during operation, such as blood in urine, pelvic pain, fever, etc.
c) Excessive bleeding during and after operation
d) Abdominal hysterectomy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the deep veins of the leg or lung.
e) Early menopause
It is caused by interruption of blood flow to the ovaries as a result of removing the uterus
I hope this information will help.You can read more of my articles about endometriosis at steady health article panel- women health.