Coelomic metaplasia is defined as some of the cells of the peritoneum (also known as the abdominal wall) developing into endometrial cells instead of normal peritoneal cells. Studies of pelvic peritoneal tissue from women undergoing laparotomy suggests that before endometriosis has become established in the peritoneum, there might be a metaplastic change by peritoneal mesothelial cells into endometrial glandular cells. In this article, we will discuss how coelomic metaplasia causes endometriosis.

1. Retrograde menstruation
As blood flows backwards instead of forwards through the fallopian tube and gains access to the pelvic and abdominal cavity, it causes internal infection or inflammation of organs inside the abdominal region, resulting in transformation of some peritoneal cells into endometrial cells attached in the abdominal wall.

2. Inflammation
It is possible that infection of bacteria, parasites or virus such as salmonellae caused inflammation of some cells of the peritoneum resulting in coelomic metaplasia.

3. Iatrogenic origin
It is said that during medical surgery, some cells from the internal wall of the uterus might be accidentally transferred to the abdominal cavity and become endometrial adhesion or implants attached to the organ in the abdominal cavity.

4. Xenoestrogen overload
Xenoestrogen is the bad estrogen entering our body from the foods we eat everyday. They are by-products of manufacturing processes. During the surge of estrogen at the beginning of menstrual cycle, over-production of xenoestrogen causes hormone imbalance resulting in over-stimulation of certain hormones, causing some of the cells of the peritoneum developing into endometrial cells.

5. Environment toxins
Our body works it's best to cope with hundreds of synthetic chemicals everyday, if any thing goes wrong during this process, free radicals form as well as increasing the risk of some of the cells of the peritoneum to develop into endometrial cells. Study shows that over-exposure to dioxin and certain types of waste incineration increase the risk of endometriosis.

I hope this information will help.You can read more of my articles about endometriosis at steady health article panel- women health.