Five years after the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission conducted a long-term research to determine the effects of radiation exposure. The study included over 120,000 survivors.

Another study was conducted just a few years ago with 4,100 survivors from the same studying group and found that the long-term radiation exposure effects were still present. The participants were around 70 years old at the time.

Around 45% of the survivors of the attacks were found to have some form of thyroid disease. It was found that the survivors had developed nodules, autoimmune disease, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The thyroid nodules they developed were both benign or cancerous. It was estimated that 37 % of nodules were malignant tumors, 31 % were benign and 25% of the survivors developed cysts. More women then men got sick and the presence of nodules was in direct proportion to the radiation dose they received.

It was also found that the younger the survivors were at the time of the attacks, the more likely they were to develop thyroid nodules. Children who were under the age of 10 are those who are suffering from the consequence the most now.

It is known with certainty now that radiation has long lasting negative effects on health of those who were exposed to it.