Semen is a mixture of fluids secreted from male gonads, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands. It contains spermatozoa - mobile male reproductive cells that are required for fertilization. Normal properties of semen include milky white color, viscous consistence, PH about 8 (slightly alkaline), and with rare or no blood cells. Changes in semen color are usually not a sign of a serious condition, but nevertheless, the problem should be referred to a doctor for further examination.
Yellow Semen Causes
Semen can take different nuances of yellow color for different reasons. If ejaculation is avoided for significant amount of time (months), spermatozoa contained in the semen will die and undergo destruction, which is a natural process that can make semen yellow. Color should get back to normal after several ejaculations. Another reason can be the intake of food rich in sulfur (onion, garlic, egg yolks, etc.). In that case, try to intake enough fluids and the color will normalize within the next few days.
The only cause of yellow semen that could require medical treatment is urogenital tract infection. Different parts of your urogenital tract can be infected, resulting in immune system activation and inflammation process, and consequent release of inflammatory products that can turn semen to yellow. Semen is usually odorless, but due to infection it can get bad smell. During the urogenital tract infection, you can also experience other local symptoms such as pain, irritation, and frequent urination, as well as systemic symptoms such as fever. Bacterial infection should be treated with an appropriate antibiotic prescribed by doctor.
Green color of semen can also appear due to infection with some bacteria or fungi. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the two STD-causing bacterial species that can particularly result in green color of semen.
Presence of blood in semen is called hematospermia. Hematospermia can take different nuances, from light pink to bright red. This is usually very dramatic experience for a man, but actually, it is rarely serious, especially in young men. The most common cause of bloody semen is infection, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Treatment of genital infections is very important, as they can lead to infertility if not managed well. Injury of genital and urinary tract can also cause bleeding, and it can occur because of internal factors (kidney stones hurting urinary pathway) or external factors (trauma). In that case, a detailed examination should be performed in order to prevent infertility issues.
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