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Gender differences are, put simply, certain physical and mental distinctions between male and female humans. What are they, exactly, and what purpose do they serve?

Over the years, there have been many arguments and studies relating to this subject and, although some gender differences are proven and some still controversial, they should not be confused with sexist stereotypes. No one can really tell whether gender differences are caused by nature or whether they are environment-learned and thus caused by nurture, but the fact is that some amount of sex differentiation takes place immediately as the male or female begins to develop within the womb.

Some differences (such as reproductive organs) are congenital, while others obviously environmental (such as given names). Several studies have proven that there are expressed differences between males and females programmed within the DNA from the moment of conception.

Physical Differences Between Men And Women

There are several obvious differences between men and women, including the following [1]:

1.    The average man is taller and heavier than the average woman.

2.    Men have more body hair than women do, especially on the chest and extremities.

3.    Women are more sensitive to sound than men.

4.    Men are over 30% stronger than women, especially in the upper body. 

5.    On average, girls begin the physical differences between puberty approximately two years before boys.

6.    Men have larger hearts and lungs, and their higher levels of testosterone cause them to produce greater amounts of red blood cells.

7.    Differences in intake and delivery of oxygen translate into some aspects of performance: when a man is jogging at about 50% of his capacity, a woman will need to work at over 70% of her capacity to keep up with him.

8.    Female fertility decreases after age 35, ending with menopause, but men are capable of making children even when very old.

9.    Men’s skin has more collagen and sebum, which makes it thicker and oilier than women’s skin

10.   Women generally have a greater body fat percentage than men.

11.   Men and women have different levels of certain hormones; for example, men have a higher concentration of androgens such as testosterone, while women have a higher concentration of estrogens.

12.   An average male brain has approximately 4% more cells and 100 grams more brain tissue than an average female brain. This is not connected with intelligence! Research points to no overall difference in intelligence between males and females. However, both sexes have similar brain weight to body weight ratios.

13.   In men, the second digit is often shorter than the fourth digit, while in females the second finger tends to be longer than the fourth

14.   Men have better distance vision and depth perception, and usually better vision in lighted environments. Women have better night vision, see better at the red end of the light spectrum, and a have better visual memory.

Diseases: Gender Differences In Risk Factors

1.    More men than women become infected with HIV. This is, however, not true for the African continent. [2]
2.    More males are likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis than females. [3]
3.    Women are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease. [4]
4.    Men are more likely to suffer from cancer. [5]
5.    Women are more likely to suffer from osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and blindness. [6, 7] In fact, close to two-thirds of the world's blind are women. [7] 

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