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Dyslexia is not an easy problem to target. This learning disability can be difficult to diagnose and treat, affecting children´s development. Here, you can learn about this condition and how it can be detected on time.

An Insight Into Dyslexia 

Usually, dyslexia can be referred as a "specific learning disability" and it has been related to other speech and language, as well as learning disorders. Children suffering from dyslexia usually have an undesirable outcome if it is not detected on time.  

So, Dyslexia Is…

In essence, it is defined as a difficulty in mastering word reading, accuracy, spelling and/or fluency. These are independent of socio-economic status, IQ level, history of head trauma and/or other neurological disorders. Phonemes, which are the sound of the letters or groups of letters, cannot be well appreciated by people with this problem.

Overall, approximately 5-12 percent of children suffer from dyslexia, and boys are affected more than girls: language development tends to occur later in life for boys than for girls, a situation that may contribute to make them more susceptible to develop dyslexia.

This disorder results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. When the father suffers from dyslexia, there is a 50 percent chance that his male off-springs will develop dyslexia overtime. There are a number of studies that indicate that previous familial history of learning disability and delayed speech and language enhances the chance of developing dyslexia in these families.

Despite the expanded research, a specific gene or genes that are directly related to dyslexia have not been identified yet. 

Some genetic studies of different families and twins suffering from dyslexia revealed that genes involved in early brain development, neuronal communication and connectivity are the best candidates to be the cause.

Surprisingly, these studies also found that dyslexia is highly associated with some other disorders such as autoimmune diseases, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and other learning disorders. It is believed that the same genes share the same location in the DNA organization. Yet, these results continue to be controversial within the scientific community and the exact biological mechanisms behind dyslexia remain unknown.

Why Is It So Hard To read? The Reading Process Of A Dyslexic

It is well known that over time, some regions of the brain become specialized and involved in word reading, and are usually located in the dominant hemisphere of the brain, where language resides. In a non-dyslexic child, a hypothetical reading network is developed over time, while children are acquiring the reading skills and abilities related to the reading learning process.

In dyslexic patients, there are defects in the connectivity process to transmit signals in the language area of the brain leading to an impairment in the development of this hypothetical reading network.

A dyslexic patient has difficulties in understanding spoken language, identified by professionals as a defect in phonological awareness. This is accompanied also by visuospatial attention and perception defects and comes before reading difficulties. 

People with dyslexia also suffer from “visual stress”, a term used to to refer to the visual disorders that usually present discomfort and distortion while seeing. Patients with visual stress complain of fatigue, excessive luminosity, blurring and fading of flickered visual stimuli.

These problems are present in about 46 percent of dyslexic patients, although some clinicians argue that dyslexia and visual stress are two independent conditions.

Continue reading after recommendations

  • De Beer, J., Engels, J., Heerkens, Y., & van der Klink, J. (2014). Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 77. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-77
  • Friedmann, N., Biran, M., & Gvion, A. (2012). Patterns of visual dyslexia. Journal of Neuropsychology, 6(1), 1–30. doi:10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02000.x
  • Norton, E. S., Beach, S. D., & Gabrieli, J. De. (2014). Neurobiology of dyslexia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 30C, 73–78. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2014.09.007
  • Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. a. (2005). Dyslexia (specific reading disability). Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1301–9. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.043
  • Uccula, A., Enna, M., & Mulatti, C. (2014). Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(July), 833. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00833Photo courtesy of Eye to Eye National via Flickr: www.flickr.com/photos/62668825@N07/6871552982
  • Photo courtesy of US Department of Education via Flickr: www.flickr.com/photos/departmentofed/9605581943

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