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I would like to know types of epilepsy seizures. Thanks in advance!


I will not go into description of epilepsy seizures, I’ll just reckon up the types. Types of seizures are classified into two groups- primary generalized seizures (where hereditary elements are of big importance) and second group, partial seizures. First group includes seizures as absence seizures, atypical absence seizures, myoclonic seizures, atonic seizures, tonic seizures, clonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures. Second group, partial seizures, include three types of seizures- simple partial seizure, complex partial seizure and secondary generalized seizures.


I'd like to comment on your question and teper's reply.

I still have light-sensitive generalising partial(-complex) attacks (now rarely, used to be ever week) and used to suffer series of tonic clonic attacks at night. (1 every 1,5 hours until (enough) emergency medication was administered,) but not anymore, used to be once every 3 months. My worst episode was a series of 8 attacks in 12 hours after 3 attacks I was checked-up by emergency services , after 5 attacks I was rushed to hospital, after 6 I wa s given-up &my wife was told to expect the worst and sit with me, after 7 I was exhausted so bad I got hartarythmia and after 8 attacks I was sedated by a anesthesist.  I came out alive, I woke up 2 days later and tried to step out of the bed, and fell flat on my face as the muscle aches were so bad I couldn't stand anymore.  after 30 days I was completely recovered from my muscle aches. I sufferd 2 fractured ribs and several bruised ribs, had 2 dislocated collar bones and broke a molar. I got and later ate liquid food the first 3 days as I couldnt chew anymore dus to the muscle ache and it took 5 days before I could walk the 6 meters to the toilet. The fist week I slept 14 hrs a day or more. This was my worst episode.

There are several forms of seizures I agree:

True epileptic:

Generalised: (these attacks affect the complete brainregion and therefore

- Tonic Clonic (Grand-Mal) : complete cramping of the body (seizing) and release (tremor/shaking) Frequency can be daily or more often, duration of the attack is between 2 and 10 minutes, generally speaking emergency services should be called after 5 minutes. Singel attacks are not life threatening for healthy induviduals
- Tonic: (Cramping attack) Frequency can be daily or more often
- Clonic: (Only shaking) Frequency can be daily or more often
- Status Epilepticus:  Tonic and/or clonic attack state where the body stays in a  tonic clonic seizure for over 20 minutes, potentially fatal. Frequency can be daily or more often
- Cluster attack:  Very rapid repeating tonic clonic attacks (with only seconds to minutes between attacks; frequency of cluster attacks is lower: mothly or longer
- Series: Several tonic clonic seizures in succession with a couple hours in between often the frequency is lower monthly or lower
- Absences (Petit-Mal) : Temporary loss of conciousness normall limited to a few seconds, no other visual symptoms then the turning away of the eyes, sometimes loss of balance. Predomenantly found in children.


- Partial attack: Seizing of a small part in the brain:
 o motoric:  muscle group , normally the same each time (comparable to cramping of the muscle) can be found using EEg study , often dismissed as noral cramping.
 o sensory: strange sounds or lights, tingling or shivers (comparable to the psychic partial attack symptom hallucinations but with an worldly explanation)
 o autonomous : goose bumps, excessive transpiration, blushing, hartpalpitations, changing of breathing frequency or pupil dilation, epigastric attacks (strange feeling in the stomach)
o pschychic: hallucinations (comparable to sensory partial attack symptom  but without an worldly explanation) , wake dreaming, panic attacks, dizziness. Feelings of deja-vu or jamais-vu are also common, as is memory impairment

- Partial complex attack:
 drop in consiousness, with brainfunctions other than 'core functions' shutting down, people have a partial complex attack wander around aimlessly and are only intuitively aware of their surroundings and wil only be able to respond with primal instincts. Fight or Flight responses to attampted contact are normally observed if you knwo what is going on. ppl start plucking at clothes and objects, drool and are generally speaking on a mental plane far far away. If urged in a subtle way people can be made to act according to instructions

- Generalising partial epilepsy: A partial attack that grows into a partial complex and or generalised seizure (normally tonic and/or clonic attacks) These attacks can start with a partial or partial complex attack and grow into any generalised attacks. In case of generalising attacks the partial attack is often called an 'aura'-experience, sometimes these take several minutes giving people enough warning to self administer (emergency-)medication.

- Myoclonic attacks: They look often like tics as found in people with Gile de la Tourette's Syndrome, but less complex normally found in 1 muscle (group)

Non Epileptic: (these all have some overlap with epilepsy attacks and shouldn't be forgotten)

- Febrile seizures: caused by extreme fever mostly in young children. Above 40,5 degrees celsius (sorry I'm Dutch so I do not have a clue about Fahrenheit) the brain can malfunction and cause seizures which aren't epilepsy fut a symptom of the fever itself.
Be wary about the disease instigating the seizures, for example in case of meningitis (which in itself can be cause by several common diseases as a secondary inflamation (chance of braindamage & permanent epilepsy),) or pneumonia (chance of hypoxia in combination with severe seizures leading to braindamage )  

- Drug induced seizures: All stimulating agents can cause seizures! This includes, but is not limited to: Cocaine, Exstacy (MDMA & variants), Amphetamines (Speed), Guarana, energy drinks, large amounts of coffee. Also downers (heroine, opium, other opiates, cannabis (resin, herbal & oil) can cause seizures during withdrawal. These can be extremely dangerous and are often contributers to overdose deaths... or withdrawal fatalities. 

- Psychogenic Pseudo-Epileptic Attack (PPEA) : stress induced seizure, caused by psychological or emotional distress often  causing typical seizures : swooning (lowering of consiousness)  and abreactions (clonic-like tremors) These attacks can be found in all people when stress becomes to much but  are often found in epileptic persons as well.

- Fainting: loss of consiousness (due to physical or emotional shock)

- Migraine attacks (severe headache spells, often with nausea and vomiting, and a severe photosensitive episode.) Sensibility to migraines and epilepsy seem to  be linked to the same locations in genetic material.

- Narcolepsia : Sleaping attacks, people fall asleep without warning.

- Breathholding spells : Forgetting to breathe.

- Hyperplexia: startle epilepsy. If subject gets scared, they suffer generalised forms of seizing

- Hyperglycaemia: (found in diabetics and sometimes infants) can be a trigger for seizures.


- You cannot prevent the seizure!

- Check if you are at risk if you help the victim. You can only help if you are able to... Don't make it 2 victims.
- Check if the victim is at risk (potential drowning, powertools, traffic) call emergency services in case of an unreachable victim.

Tonic-Clonic Seizure

Be mindfull of the situation around you. A person in a seizure can knock people unconsiuous because movement is made involountarily and with total cramping of muscles leading to tremendously  forcefull movementy.

- The seizure shouldn't be longer than 5 minutes, if so call the Emergency Services. Also call when people do not regain consiousness after the attack , when the victim asks for a doctor or ambulance or when you noticed (severe) trauma, or when the victim was pulled out of the water.

When you need to act: 
- Approach unconsious victim from the top (stand behind the head looking at the feet
- You can transport someone by grabbing him under the shoulders.
grab people ONLY under the shoulders and not at their limbs: the seizing will tear muscles or even break bones when the muscles contract and are constrained
- Protect the head, remove glasses, remove ties or scarfs if you can without endangering yourself. People in a tonic-clonic will always turn blue due to lack of oxygen.....
- NEVER EVER put something in someones mouth. It's a myth you'll swallow part of you tongue and doing so could cost you fingers, after the first tonic onset most people have already bitten their tongue anyways and it will be locked in place. tongue and cheek bites, though painfull, always heal within 3 days and often faster

When the attack subsides: RECOVERY POSITION! Lie the person on his side, put his head to the side, leave the mouth open: vomiting is a possibility, as is excessive drooling, both cause a chance of drowning. You'll see blood from the bite, do not worry about it. Stay close and be miindfull of thieves and other a-social people (My wallet was stolen once during a seizure.)s

Normal things to expect: loss of urine and feaces, tongue-/cheekbite (red bubbles around the mouth), extreme fatigue, muscle aches (3-28 days depending on severity of the seizure), 'road rash', amnesia, torn ligaments, pulled muscles, and in bad cases: broken bones, superficial friction burns.

Partial Complex Seizure

- Keep people away if possible. Crowds can cause the victim to panic.
- As people suffering a Partial Complex Seizure react with basic instincts be mindfull of their actions.
- The victim will move and take another route when you stand before them (impeding routes the victim shouldn't take), but do not grab them unless it's absolutely neccesary
- Speak but in a reasuring way , try to move the victims by talking to them, do not force anything as people can get scared and flee or even attack you!
- These attacks can last up to 45 minutes but seldomly take more than an hour. Most people are awake long before.

Normal things to expect: Uncontrolled behaviour, Unabled to plan and see consequences of actions, Fight or Flight instinct

hope this helps a little