In this article I will present varieties of vegetarianism, the practice of not consuming meat or fish, with or without the use of diary products or eggs.
What is vegetarianism?
Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming meat or fish, including products that are derived from animals, such as lard, gelatin, tallow, rennet and cochineal. Some vegetarians consume dairy products and eggs, while others don't. A form of vegetarianism, which is called veganism, excludes all animal products from diet whether or not this involves the actual death of an animal. For example vegans don't eat dairy products, eggs and honey, and choose not wear silk and products, made of down feathers.
Even stricter form of vegetarianism is fruitarianism. Fruitarianism excludes all food but the fallen botanic fruits of plants. For example, fruitarianists will eat fruits, nuts, seeds and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant, such as beans, tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins and the like, but they will refuse to eat potatoes or spinach.
Vegetarianism is mostly a form of diet, but as mentioned above it can be also expressed as a form of lifestyle: most vegetarians choose not to wear clothing derived from animals, especially leather and fur.
Types of vegetarianismOvo-lacto vegetarianism
Ovo-lacto vegetarianism eliminates the eating of all meat, including fish , but allows the consumption of animal products such as eggs and milk. Ovo-lacto vegetarians who are such for ethical reasons may additionally refuse to eat cheese made with animal-based enzymes, or eggs produced by factory farms. This is currently the most common variety in the Western world. In India this type is called eggitarian colloquially.
Lacto vegetarianism refers to the practice of eliminating all meat, including fish, yet allowing the consumption of milk and its derivatives, like cheese, butter or yoghurt. Similarly ovo-vegetarians presumably only eat eggs in addition to their otherwise strictly vegetarian regimen. Most vegetarians in India and those in the classical Mediterranean lands, such as Pythagoreans, are or were lacto vegetarian.
Ovo vegetarians do not eat meat or dairy products but do eat eggs.
Vegans are those who avoid eating all animal prodcuts including eggs, milk, cheese, and honey, and are know for not using animal products, such as leather, fur, and animal tested or contained cosmetics.
In United States and Europe vegetarianism is synonym for ovo-lacto vegetarianism, with occasional toleration of meal, usually fish or lean poultry. In Britain, due to its larger Hindu minority, vegetarianism refers as Hindu vegetarianism. Typical for hindu vegetarianism is elimination of anything gained at the expense of an animal's suffering. This includes all sorts of meat, eggs, honey and animal byproducts, such as gelatin. Cow, buffalo and goat milk is acceptable. Also leather from cows have died of natural causes is acceptable. On the other orthodox Huindus do not consume alcohol and "overly-stimulating" foods such as onions and garlic.
Less common practices of vegetarianism includeRaw food diet, which involves food, usually vegan, which is not heated above 46.7 °C; which leads to conclusion food may be warmed slightly or raw, but should be never cooked. This is due fact that cooking destroys enzymes and thus portions of each nutrient. On the other hand, certain foods become more bio-available when warmed slightly because the process softens them. Some followers of the raw food diet activate the enzymes through soaking the food in water a while before consumption.
Macrobiotic diet is a diet, which involves a diet consisting mostly of whole grains and beans and is usually spiritually based. Macrobiotic also includes 10% soups, 5% seaweeds and up to 30% vegetables in daily food intake.
Natural hygiene is a diet that principally involves raw vegan foods.
Fruitarianism, as already mentioned, is a diet consisted of only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant.
What is not vegetarianism, but is close to it?Vegetarianism is not when people choose to avoid certain types of meat, because of health, ethical or religious beliefs and so forth. For example, some people choose not to eat red met, like pork, beef, lamb, but still consume poultry and seafood.
Some people choose not to eat meat raised in animal factories. This is because they feel that the suffering of the animals is the one they want to avoid, so they will eat only animals raised under humane conditions or those hunted in the wild. This is also not considered as true vegetarianism.
Pesco vegetarianism eliminates all meat, but occasionally includes some seafood, primarily fish, but also some other meat, like poultry. This is the diet practiced, with occasional supplementation of dairy products. This diet may also be used by those who are on a path to becoming fully vegetarian.
Flexitarians are people who adhere to a diet that is mostly vegetarian but occasionally consume meat. They choose not to eat meat raised in animal factories. This is because they feel that the suffering of the animals is the one they want to avoid, so they will eat only animals raised under humane conditions or those hunted in the wild.
Freeganism is not veganism or vegetarianism- freeganism is a lifestyle based on concerns about the exploitation of animals, the earth, and human beings in the production of consumer goods. Many freegans are vegans, but this is not an inherent practice, and those who eat meat generally support the arguments for vegetarianism. However, freeganism is not mainly about dieting principles, but more concerned about consumer society and waste. For that reason freegans prefer to make use of discarded commodities and not allow them to go to waste and consume landfill space