What is a lymphocele?
A lymphocele is an area where lymphatic fluid collects within the body and does not have an epithelial lining.
A lymphocele develops as a complication of surgery, especially performed around the pelvic region such as radical pelvic surgery, when removing lymphatic tissue that has been affected by pathology such as gynecological and prostatic cancers.
The surgical procedures may result in injury and damage to the lymphatic tissue and this negatively impacts the way lymph fluid flows through these structures. The problem is thought to develop around four months after surgery is performed.
If the damage to the tissue is minor then new collateral channels will form which help to drain the fluid properly. If the damage is extensive though, the fluid collects in the area of the injury and a lymphocele develops.
Other factors that may result in the development of a lymphocele include:
- Heparin prophylaxis to prevent the development of blood clots in the deep venous system (deep vein thrombosis)
- Radiation therapy performed before surgery
- As a complication of tumors
A study demonstrated that after radical surgery was performed for cervical and ovarian cancers, lymphoceles developed in 20 and 32 percent of these cases, respectively.
The most common normal bumps that appear on the penis are described as small protuberances that are located at the ridge of the head of the penis.
Medically they are referred to as hirsuties coronae glandis, but are colloquially known as "pearly penile papules".
These lesions are sometimes mistaken for genital warts caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) but they can be distinguished from each other due to the location they appear in. HPV tends to have a more widespread presentation with the lesions being larger in size whereas pearly penile papules are one to three millimetres in size and are restricted to the ridge around the head of the penis. The latter is also smooth and dome-shaped whereas the former looks more like skin tags.
Some men and their partners may find that these lesions are a cosmetic problem and not aesthetically appealing so they prefer to have them removed. Any procedure to remove lesions on the penis do carry somewhat of a risk to them, as any surgical procedure does. Therefore, it is advised that men who want these lesions removed weigh out the risks of the procedure against the benefits offered by it and make an informed decision based on these findings.
If the decision still stands to remove the lesions, then one needs to consult a specialist dermatologist to perform the procedure needed to do so.
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