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Dentures can become loose due to a variety of reasons. The first and the most common reason is that the shape of the underlying bone changes with time. For some people this change can happen faster than others because of the presence of an underlying systemic condition such as osteoporosis or diabetes, or even due to individual variation without any obvious reason. 

Such dentures can usually be relined or rebased depending upon the discrepancy in size that has developed. This process does not usually involve getting new dentures, and instead modifies the borders of the old ones to better fit the underlying tissues. In some cases, these procedures will not be applicable since the required change is simply too great.

The other reason why dentures can become loose is due to wear and tear of the prosthesis. If there is excessive occlusal load being transferred to the dentures then it will resorb quite quickly. In fact, in certain hybrid prosthesis or implant supported cases, the dentures may have to replaced every year. The patients usually do not mind that their dentures are wearing away quickly because it means that they are able to use it for all their functions pretty comfortably. 

The use of high strength materials to make the dentures can help prolong their life somewhat, but is unlikely to make much of a difference.

The anatomic shape of our upper and lower jaw bone varies significantly, and there is almost no reason why sufficient retention is unable to be achieved for the use of an upper denture since the palatal vault provides enough surface area to form a strong seal or "suction". The lower dentures are usually much more problematic since the tongue keeps pushing it out of position and there is no substitute for the reduced alveolar ridge height like in the upper jaw.

The presence of a bony disturbance in the palate, called a torus, can be one of the reasons why a newly made set of dentures may not have a good retention. It could also simply be improperly made by the dentist, however if the problem persists even after visiting a couple of other dentists then it is likely that the problem lies elsewhere. A very narrow palatal vault, which is seen in a small percentage of the patients, could also contribute to poor retention of the dentures.

There are some options that are at your disposal if your dentures are loose.

  1. Try and use a denture-adhesive gel that will help form a tight seal and create suction between the prosthesis and your jaw. It can be really helpful in the case of minor discrepancies.
  2. Implant supported dentures: There are a number of different kinds of implant supported dentures of which the simple overdenture is the most economical. Ask your doctor about them.
  3. Never try and trim your own dentures. This is absolutely certain to ruin them, making it very likely that they will be destroyed beyond repair.
The number of prosthetic options for edentulous patients are many, so work with your doctor in finding one that is acceptable to you.

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