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Bleeding gums are considered to be the first sign of gum disease and a good predictor of the kind of plaque control being practiced by patients. Here is why it occurs and the ideal bleeding gums treatment that is available right now.

Unexplained bleeding from any part of the body can be scary, not least when it happens from your mouth. The most common area where people report bleeding in their mouth is from their gums. There can be many reasons why bleeding gums may be a condition you are forced to encounter. Bleeding gums are, in fact, the first sign of gum disease [1]. Following are the common reasons for gums to bleed as well as the best bleeding gum treatment available.

Causes of Bleeding Gums

  • Poor Oral Hygiene

Poor oral hygiene is by far the most common reason for the occurrence of bleeding gums in the mouth [2]. Brushing is something that is taught to us as a basic oral hygiene habit but unfortunately, it does not always translate into good brushing habits being carried over into the latter stages of life.

A failure to brush your teeth in the proper manner or the proper amount of times will result in the accumulation of plaque on the teeth [3]. Plaque is a small layer that forms on top of the teeth, almost immediately after brushing and is composed of the bacteria present in our mouth.

Regular brushing keeps disrupting this layer of bacteria and keeps it harmless. If, however, through poor oral hygiene, this layer is allowed to develop undisturbed then it starts to become disease-causing. The harmful bacteria comes in contact with the gums and causes them to become swollen and inflamed. This inflammation is the reason why gums bleed [4].

  • Improper arrangement of the teeth/ crowding

The way our teeth are arranged is a very important determinant of the efficiency with which they can be cleaned by the people. Some people have teeth which are rotated or placed improperly or maybe the size of the jaw is small leading to crowding of the teeth.

All of these conditions also result in the accumulation of plaque due to the development of areas which cannot be properly cleaned by the brush [5]. The same sequence of cycle leading to the inflammation of the gums follows as described above.

  • Mouth breathing

Patients that are mouth breathers, neither due to habit or the presence of an anatomic discrepancy, also suffer from bleeding gums more commonly than others [6]. The reason for this is that the gums are exposed to the external environment more than they are designed to be and thus start to become inflamed.

The cause of inflammation, in this case, is not poor oral hygiene or the accumulation of plaque but the result is the same.

  • Improper contacts of crowns, bridges, or dentures

People that have had some crowns or bridges installed in their mouth may find that the contact between their artificial prosthesis and the natural tooth is not quite perfect. This becomes an area where the food can get lodged leading to the growth of harmful bacteria and bacterial inflammation [7].

Even if the contacts between the teeth and the prosthesis is good, the natural surface of the crowns is rougher than the natural tooth. This rough surface is once again ideal for the growth of microorganisms in the mouth that can cause inflammation and lead to bleeding gums.

  • Presence of decayed teeth

Tooth decay is very prevalent around the world and in most populations. Unfortunately, a lack of education or the expense of the treatment often prevents patients from seeking out treatment at the right time or until they have pain.

Decayed teeth are an ideal source of harmful bacteria as well as food lodgment in the mouth. Patients that are worried about pain in such teeth will also avoid eating fro that tooth allowing bacteria to grow even more freely.

A neglected decayed tooth or the presence of decayed root stumps in the mouth will almost always be accompanied with bleeding gums [8].

  • Nutritional deficiency

Vitamin C deficiency diseases are encountered very rarely nowadays, however, if it does occur then once of the classic symptoms associated with this disease is bleeding gums.

Vitamin C plays a very important role in the metabolism of collagen fibers which are integral to the health of the gums. In case the body is deficient in Vitamin C, the collagen fibers present in the gums start to break down and thus compromise the integrity of the gum tissue.

One of the symptoms that this breakdown cause is bleeding of the gums [9].

  • Systemic Diseases

Certain systemic diseases like leukemia and clotting factor deficiencies can be associated with bleeding gums [10]. In fact, often a patient may go to the dentist to seek bleeding gums treatment and only then be diagnosed with the underlying systemic disease.

Both leukemia and clotting factor diseases affect the ability of the body to form blood clots. This is why even minor trauma to the gums which could occur during brushing or eating food will manifest as bleeding from the gums which may not stop for a long time.

Bleeding gums treatment

The treatment of bleeding gums will vary with the exact cause determined by the doctor [11]. In most cases, though, it will begin with a thorough scaling. The scaling ensures that the plaque and tartar accumulated on the teeth are removed and that alone will help the gums to return to their normal healthy state.

In situations where other modifying factors are present like an underlying systemic disease or a nutritional deficiency then those must be taken care of as well to provide a comprehensive solution to the problem.

Patients that are unable to remove the plaque on their teeth adequately because of improperly placed teeth or crowding should get orthodontic treatment done so their teeth move into the right place and plaque retention is solved for the long term.

It is also very important to realize that treatment of bleeding gums is not a one-time affair. It is an ongoing process which requires the development of good oral hygiene methods, elimination of any factors that cause bleeding gums, as well as a regular regimen of professional scaling.

That regimen may vary for some severe cases but most people should find getting a scaling done once every six months more than enough.

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