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I know only lactose is something connected with milk. That is supposed to be its ingredient or something like that. I have to admit I do not know much about it, although I would like to know. However, I have heard some observation says that at least some humans have made adaptations to lactose. This one is arguing that human metabolic needs have not changed since the last ice age, so I want to hear more about it, and which enzyme is the one needed for lactose.

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Lactose is a disaccharide that makes up near 2-8% of the solids in milk. The name comes from the Latin word for milk, plus the -ose ending, which is used to name sugars. Lactose is a disaccharide consisting of two subunits, galactose and glucose. Those two substances are linked together in lactose. In the young of mammals, an enzyme called lactase is secreted by the intestinal villi. This enzyme cleaves the molecule into its two subunits for absorption. Normally, as the young grow up, production of lactase gradually ceases, and they are then unable to metabolize lactose in normal cases. This is perhaps an evolutionary mechanism to enforce weaning of the young mammals. This loss of lactase on maturation is also the default pattern in most adult humans as well. Many adults have a version of the gene for lactase that is not disabled after their infancy. This adaptation has led to the milking of sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo, and this process of retaining infant characteristics into adulthood is one of the simplest routes of evolutionary adaptation.
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