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need answers on DNA oncovirus replication


Some oncogenic retroviruses i.e. cancer-causing viruses with RNA genomes, insert their genome into the host cell and use reverse transcriptase to make DNA. This DNA is then incorporated into the cell DNA along with powerful promoter sequences (LTRs) that promote transcription of the viral DNA to reproduce more virus. However, sometimes the viral DNA incorporates a section of the host DNA which contains genes for growth promotion. These growth genes, sometimes called proto-oncogenes in their normal state, become oncogenic once incorporated into the viral DNA because of the increased transcription caused by the viral LTRs. This causes increased growth of the infected cell, leading to cellular proliferation and the formation of tumors. Numerous oncogenes have been discovered in the genomes of transforming retroviruses.

Other oncogenic retroviruses transform cells by integrating into the host gene near a proto-oncogene. If the viral LTRs are close enough to that oncogene, they will upregulate transcription not only of the viral DNA but of the proto-oncogene nearby, causing growth, cell proliferation and by consequence tumour formation.