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Consumption of red meat has also been associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions. A study published in the British Medical Journal examined the amount of red meat consumed by the people and the green gas emissions. It found that people who regularly ate red or processed red meat generally ate more than other people.
If men who consume 91 grams of red meat per day cut it down to 53 grams, the risk of colorectal cancer and diabetes type 2 can be decreased by 12 percent. Moreover, the greenhouse gas emissions linked with food and beverages would be reduced by 0.45 tons per person per year.
Study links consumption of red meat to increased mortality
According to the results of a national Institutes of Health –AARP study comprising of more than half million Americans, people who consumed large portions of red meat and processed meat over a 10 years period have an increased likelihood of dying earlier compared to people who consume small portions of red meat or abstain from it completely.
In comparison to people who consume less than half ounce of red meat a day, people eating 4 ounces of red meat every day are more likely to die of cancer or heart disease.
Another study, which followed about 72,000 women who ate a Western diet comprising heavily of red and processed meats, for 18 years, concluded that these women had an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, and death from related causes.
Yet another study published in the April 2012 issue of the journal Archives of Internal Medicine has concluded that consumption of red meat is linked to an increased risk of total, CVD and cancer mortality. When the red meat in the diet is substituted by other healthy protein sources like, whole grains, fish, poultry, low fat dairy or legumes, the mortality risk is reduced.
Factors responsible for increased risk of cancer on consuming red meat in large quantities
Researchers have been trying to find out how exactly is red meat consumption associated with increased risk of developing cancer. Some of the factors which they have zeroed on include:
- Saturated Fat which is present in large quantities in red meat. It increases the risk of heart disease as well as cancers of breast and colon.
- Some researchers have opined that carcinogens are released during the process of cooking red meat.
- Heme iron, which is beneficial in patients of anemia, may also produce certain chemicals harmful to cells. Damage to cells because of these chemicals may result in cancer.
Considering the harmful effects of red meat on the health, the American Institute for Cancer Research has recommended that one should not consume more than 18 ounces of cooked red meat a week. In view of their association with colorectal cancer, the institute has also advised to abstain from all processed meats like sausages, ham, hot dogs, etc.
Steps that can be taken to reduce the formation of potential carcinogens while preparing red meat
People who just cannot resist eating red meat can take the following steps to reduce the formation of carcinogens while grilling:
- Opt for lean red meat cuts
- Cook over a medium flame rather than a high flame which can cause charring and produce carcinogens.
- Limit the time of frying and broiling.
- Marinate as it reduces the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which increase the risk of cancer.
- Do not overcook the meat. Also, remember to turn the meat frequently while cooking.