Bleeding during or after intercourse can cause a lot of anxiety. It can be such a reality check after the incredible feeling sex gives you. Bleeding during or after intercourse (a.k.a post coital bleeding) should not be taken lightly especially if it happens a few times in a roll.
If it happens just once, it could be some residual blood from the uterus, rough sex or minor trauma during sex. Trauma usually occurs around the opening of the vagina or at other locations within the vagina. It also causes slight pain or at least discomfort during the sexual act. The bleeding could also be from the male’s organ, so make sure the bleeding is coming from the vagina.
Also, if you were a virgin, the bleeding would indicate breaking the hymen.
Other possible causes of bleeding during/after intercourse could be infections. The least worrisome but the most annoying would be yeast infection. The most common symptoms this fungal overgrowth causes are itching, burning, and an odorless, white, cheese-like discharge.
Vaginitis and cervicitis are inflammations or swelling and infection of the vagina or cervix. There could be many causes and the treatment would depend on them.
Other infections belong to the sexually transmitted diseases group (STD’s) and include Chlamydia (check Chlamydia FAQ), Gonorrhea and Trichomoniasis.
Chlamydia is a dangerous bacterial infection, often asymptomatic, but could lead to infertility and PID in women.
Gonorrhea is also bacterial infection with nasty symptoms but easily treated with medications.
Trichomoniasis is caused by protozoan. Besides sexual intercourse, other sources of infection with this protozoan could be tap water, hot tubs, urine, toilet seats, and swimming pools.
Certain growths within vagina, cervix or uterus could cause post coital bleeding too. They are Cervical dysplasia- precancerous condition that includes changes of the epithelial cells lining the cervix. Treatment is essential and it usually includes cryosurgery or conisation.
Cervical polyps-benign grapelike growths from the surface cells lining the cervix. They are painless, easily removed and could sometimes fall off on their own during periods.
Endometritis, adenomyosis and endometriosis are all known to cause vaginal bleeding during and after intercourse. In endometriosis, endometrial tissue that should be just lining the uterus grows on other organs like the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, bladder, and even bowels. Adenomyosis is similar to endometriosis but the lining grows inside the wall of the uterus. Endometritis is an inflammation of the endometrium (the uterus lining). These conditions are not life threatening but could impair quality of life. Adenomyosis and endometriosis may even require hysterectomy to get rid of the symptoms for good.
Uterine polyps are benign growths protruding from the mucous lining of the uterus. The most common symptoms include bleeding between periods, vaginal bleeding after sex, spotting, bleeding after menopause, and breakthrough bleeding during hormone therapy.
Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that rarely turn to be malignant. They can also be very annoying causing different symptoms in different women. Some may not have any symptoms at all. These growths usually shrink after menopause once our body stops producing estrogen. However, sometimes due to severe symptoms, they may require treatment that includes myomectomy, uterine artery embolization or even traditional hysterectomy. Only hysterectomy (which should be the last options if it could not be avoided) will remove the fibroids for good by removing the uterus. Other treatments may not have long-lasting results as these tumors may appear on other sights within the uterus.
Bleeding after sex could also be a symptom of cervical and vaginal cancer.
It is essential to see a doctor if you experience post-coital or vaginal bleeding during sex!
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