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I'm reworking my dietary needs again and I've got a question. If I eat 3000 calories a day and 40% of my calories should come from protein for a 40/40/20(fat) split that gives me 1200 calories from protein.

3000 x .4 = 1200 calories from protein.
1200 calories / 4 calories per gram of protein = 300 grams of protein per day.

That's one way to look at it.

Research has shown that 2.0 to 2.6 g/kg/day of protein are required for periods of very intense weight training, whereas protein intakes of 2.0 g/kg/day maintained a positive nitrogen balance during periods of less intense weight training.

I weight approx. 75 Kgs. So 75 Kgs x 2.0 grams of protein per day = 150 grams of protein.

Quite a difference in how to figure my dietary needs.

So, which is it?

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I would follow their formula, but not the one you've highlighted. First of all, ask yourself why you want or need to increase your protein intake to 40% of your diet. (Go back and read the first two lines.) Doesn't the USRDA recommend that 65% of our diet should come from carbs, and around 15% should come from fat? This would give you a 65-20-15 ratio. Depending on the types of activities an individual is doing, I've sometimes recommended switching the ratio around to something like: 50-30-20. With that said, I would consider you more of an endurance athlete instead of an intense weight lifter, so I would suggest you follow the following:
...A study found that endurance athletes (defined as training for at least 12 hours per week for at least 5 years) require 1.37 g/kg/day of protein to maintain nitrogen balance compared to 0.73 g/kg/day for sedentary individuals.
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Ok, 75 KG * 1.37grams of protein per day = 103 grams of protein per day. The equiv. of 412 of my daily calories from protein.

A 3000 calorie diet with a 50/30/20 ratio is ::
1500 calories from carbs
900 calories from protein
600 from fat

A 3000 calorie diet with a 65/20/15 ratio is ::
1950 calories from carbs
600 calories from protein
450 calories from fat

I'd like to go with the higher protein diet because my protein intake has dropped off pretty dramatically over the past month or so and the mirror is telling me that I'm going in the opposite direction that I would like to.
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Ok, 75 KG * 1.37grams of protein per day = 103 grams of protein per day. The equiv. of 412 of my daily calories from protein.

A 3000 calorie diet with a 50/30/20 ratio is ::
1500 calories from carbs
900 calories from protein
600 from fat

A 3000 calorie diet with a 65/20/15 ratio is ::
1950 calories from carbs
600 calories from protein
450 calories from fat

I'd like to go with the higher protein diet because my protein intake has dropped off pretty dramatically over the past month or so and the mirror is telling me that I'm going in the opposite direction that I would like to.

Remember, I'm not a nutritionist. I just like to play one on the Internet.
So what, exactly, is the mirror telling you? Gaining some fat weight? Not enough definition? And why 3000 kcals per day?
I just went here and put your info in (guessing your age at 32) and came up with the following:

2749.8 calories per day recommended for your Active Caloric Rate. This is:
no more then 91.661 grams of fat (30%) for your Active Caloric Rate
103.11 grams of protein (15%) for your Active Caloric Rate
378.10 grams of carbohydrate (55%) for your Active Caloric Rate
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I'm no nutritionist either, however I have studied a LOT about it since getting sick 7 years ago and getting back into running also. My "bible", Endurance Sports Nutrition, by Suzanne Girard Eberle (who IS a nutritionist ;) ) says anywhere from 0.55 - 0.75 grams of protein per pound, which = 1.2-1.7 grams of protein/kg, however she also states that endurance athletes involved in heavy training, like for the IM, can need up to 0.8-0.9 grams per pound. Keep in mind that your goal is to maintain lean muscle tissue, NOT break it down during training for fuel! Eberle says that beginning exercise with adequate glycogen stores & supplementing with carb drinks, bars, etc during prolonged exercise is the best way to to delay fatigue and prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue. Consuming protein-rich foods shortly after exercise promotes the rebuilding of muscle proteins and may also help the body replenish glycogen stores more quickly.
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