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A molar pregnancy is a rare but serious complication that must be monitored by an obstetrician closely to make sure that risks are kept to the lowest level possible. This is a type of tumor that originates from the placental tissue and thankfully, it is one of the only types of tumors that can be completely cured even when there is a widespread metastasis of the disease. 

There are two distinctive types of molar pregnancies: a complete and a partial molar pregnancy. Complete molar pregnancies represent a high likelihood of increased risks of malignant cancer and occur in up to 8 percent of cases. Partial molar pregnancies have a much smaller but still evident risk of 0.5 percent of choriocarcinomas. 

You can begin to suspect that you may have this disease if a number of symptoms are present during the evaluation. Patients with this disease will typically have diffuse vaginal bleeding and a uterus that is larger than expected considering the gestational age of the fetus. Patients may even pass "grape-like" vesicles from the vagina to further confirm the diagnosis. An ultrasound will need to be done in order to show the cluster of these vesicles. 

Once the diagnosis has been confirmed, the pregnancy will need to be terminated to reduce the risk of more severe damages to the mother. If this material stays in the uterus, patients will be likely to have bleeding disorders that can be life-threatening. If a woman is diagnosed to have metastasis after this type of disease, the course of their management depends entirely on the wishes of the mother. She will have come frequently to the OB/GYN clinic in order to have her b-hCG levels monitored to make sure that there are no particles of the tumor that were accidentally missed when the removal of the fetal material was first performed. Urgent surgery may be necessary to make sure that all these products are removed to help reduce unwanted complications. 

If a mother still wishes to have children in the future, she will be allowed to just have a procedure to remove the contents of the uterus and may require chemotherapy to help stop the spread of this disease. If a woman is found with this disease at an older age, the more recommended step would be for the doctors to perform a hysterectomy to remove the uterus completely. 

If a woman is diagnosed with a previous molar pregnancy, she will have an increased risk of having further molar pregnancies in future pregnancies. She will have to be under a more tight control with her obstetrician in order to make sure that further pregnancies are not complicated with molar pregnancies once again. If you are unlucky enough to have two different molar pregnancies, it may be best for you to proceed with a hysterectomy. In reality, this is a very rare complication so patients with one molar pregnancy still have a high chance of having healthy full-term pregnancies in the future so it is something not worth getting too discouraged over. [1]

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