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My grandfather was diagnosed with esophageal cancer two weeks ago. I am so worried about him and would like to know more about his condition. What are his options when it comes to treatment?

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Esophageal cancer is cancer of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Muscular walls of the esophagus push food down the tube and into your stomach and in the lining of the esophagus are glands that produce mucus to make swallowing easier. Cancer occurs when malignant cells grow in the lining of the esophagus. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the upper to middle area of the esophagus and adenocarcinoma in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus. Age, sex, alcohol, tobacco use, irritation are some of the risk factors that can contribute to this cancer. Symptoms of esophageal cancer are painful swallowing, severe weight loss, pain in the throat, pain in the back, behind the breastbone or between the shoulder blades, chronic cough, vomiting, coughing up blood and many others. The most common treatment options for esophageal cancer are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. I hope that your grandfather will be ok.
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