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Could you please give me info on Brochial cancer, need to know survial rate after surgery, the difference stages of it, and systoms


Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer.

There are three forms of NSCLC:
• Adenocarcinomas are often found in an outer area of the lung.
• Squamous cell carcinomas are usually found in the center of the lung by an air tube (bronchus).
• Large cell carcinomas can occur in any part of the lung. They tend to grow and spread faster than the other two types.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer. It tends to spread much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer.

There are three different types of small cell lung cancer:
• Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer)
• Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma
• Combined small cell carcinoma
Most small cell lung cancers are the oat cell type.

Early lung cancer may not cause any symptoms. Symptoms you should watch for include:
• Cough that doesn't go away
• Coughing up blood
• Shortness of breath
• Wheezing
• Chest pain
• Loss of appetite
• Losing weight without trying
• Fatigue

Other symptoms that may be due to NSCLC:
• Weakness
• Swallowing difficulty
• Nail problems
• Joint pain
• Hoarseness or changing voice
• Swelling of the face
• Facial paralysis
• Eyelid drooping
• Bone pain or tenderness

Note: These symptoms can be due to other, less serious conditions. It is important to talk to your health care provider.

Exams and Tests
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical history. You will be asked if you smoke, and if so, how long you have smoked.
When listening to the chest with a stethoscope, the health care provider can sometimes hear fluid around the lungs, which could (but doesn't always) suggest cancer.

Tests that may be performed include:
• Chest x-ray
• Sputum test
• Bone scan
• CT scan
• Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
• Thoracentesis

In some cases, the health care provider may need to remove a piece of tissue from your lungs for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy.

There are several ways to do this:
• Bronchoscopy combined with biopsy
• Pleural biopsy
• CT scan directed needle biopsy
• Mediastinoscopy with biopsy
• Open lung biopsy
• Endoscopic esophageal ultrasound (EUS) with biopsy

If the biopsy reveals you do have lung cancer, more imaging tests will be done to determine the stage of the cancer. Stage means how big the tumor is and how far it's spread. Non-small cell lung cancer is divided into five stages:

• Stage 0 - the cancer has not spread beyond the inner lining of the lung
• Stage I - the cancer is small and hasn't spread to the lymph nodes
• Stage II - the cancer has spread to some lymph nodes near the original tumor
• Stage III - the cancer has spread to nearby tissue or spread to far away lymph nodes
• Stage IV - the cancer has spread to other organs of the body such as the other lung, brain, or liver

Treatment for Small Cell Ling Cancer

Because small cell lung cancer spreads quickly throughout the body, treatment must include cancer-killing drugs (chemotherapy) taken by mouth or injected into the body. Chemotherapy may be combined with high-powered x-rays (radiation therapy).

Surgery is rarely used to treat small cell lung cancer. It is only considered if it is limited small cell lung cancer with only one tumor that hasn't spread. Chemotherapy or radiation will be needed after surgery. However, because the disease has usually spread by the time it is diagnosed, very few patients with small cell lung cancer are candidates for surgery.

Combination chemotherapy and radiation treatment is given to persons with extensive small cell lung cancer. However, the treatment only helps relieve symptoms; it does not cure the disease.

Some patients with limited small cell lung cancer may receive radiation therapy to the head after they have completed treatment for the lung area. This method, called prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), helps prevent any lung cancer from spreading to the brain.

Treatment for Non-Small Cell Ling Cancer
There are many different types of treatment for non-small cell lung cancer:
• Surgery - part or all of the lung is removed
• Radiation therapy - uses powerful x-rays or other radiation to kill cancer cells
• Chemotherapy - uses drugs to kill cancer cells and stop new ones from growing
• Laser therapy - a small beam of light burns and kills cancer cells
• Photodynamic therapy - uses a light to activate a drug in the body, which kills cancer cells
• Watchful waiting - in rare cases, the person may only be monitored until symptoms change

Treatment depends upon the stage of the cancer. A combination of treatments may be needed. Research has suggested that chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy prior to surgery might be the best treatment for some patients.

Surgery is the often the first line of treatment for most patients with stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer, and some patients with stage III tumors. Surgery can cure the disease.

Chemotherapy alone is often used when the cancer has spread (stage IV). Chemotherapy has been shown to prolong the life and improve the quality of life in some stage IV patients.

Outlook (Prognosis) for Non-small cell lung cancer
Cure rates are related to the stage of disease and whether you are able to have surgery.
• Stage I and II cancer can be cured with surgery, sometimes in more than 50% of cases.
• Stage III tumors can be cured in some cases, but cure rates are much lower than earlier stage NSCLC
• Patients with stage IV disease are almost never cured, and the goals of therapy are to extend and improve the quality of their life.

Outlook (Prognosis) for Small cell lung cancer
How well a patient does depends on how much the lung cancer has spread. This type of cancer is very deadly. Only about 6% of people with this type of cancer are still alive after 5 years.