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I remember reading the figure somewhere that my long run should be 30% longer than my average. Is this right?
I'm running by time and not distance at the moment, since I just started running again this week after layoff of several months. During the week I run for 20 minutes, so should I run for 26 on the weekend? Obviously I will be increasing my running time as I regain fitness.

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Long run: max 30% of weekly milage and no more then 2 x next longest run for the week.
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It varies dramatically based on both what you are training for and what your overall training level is. A novice training to finish a first marathon might have a long run that exceeds 50% of there weekly total and 4 times longer then there next longest run. A 5K or 10K runner might not do a long run at all, and for an elite marathoner there long run might just be 1/7 th there weekly mileage because they have built there training to such a high level.
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I've been one to use the 30% mark for my training and found it to work well. Of course, marathoning is an extreme and warrants a conversation to itself, but putting that aside I use a weekly training schedule based on ratios of 3/1/2/1/2/1 for six days of running. It's an easy way to "self-coach". By taking your weekly mileage target, just calculate back the dailies and you're good to go. When you bump up the weekly, refigure the days. As I've said before, I'm a "caveman runner" and the simpler the better and this kind of simple framework makes self-coaching easy on the brain.
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Thanks for good answers, you guys. My plan had been to make my long run on the weekend 30% longer than my weekday (I'm running every second day currently) TIME-wise. So a set of 20 minute runs would equate to a 26 minute long run. Once I'm comfortable with the 26 minute (probably a couple of weeks) that would become my weekday distance along with the 20 minuters and my new long run would be 34 minutes. Does this make sense? Is it smart? I tend to obsess over distance and it contributed to my injury in the first place so I'm going with a completely different tack.
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At what point does the 30% become adjusted for longer distance training? Using that percentage as a benchmark, it means for marathons you need to be at 65-70mpw when you're running your 20-22M runs. I've only seen that kind of mileage recommended for the marathon training plans of the really competitive (aka, those who can actually win those . I don't even want to think what your weekly mileage would have to be for an ultra to satisfy that rule. 8O
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For marathon training, I'd put the breakpoint at 50-mpw..that would be a 15 mile long run. From there, I think a decent schedule is to continue with a 35 mile week, plus the long run on up into the 20s. So the long run could ultimately go to 40%. But again, this would be strictly for a marathon peak, so it would be likely for only the 6 highest weeks of a marathon schedule. That's largely why it's impossible to carry marathon schedule type mileage year 'round. If a runner continues to pound out month after month of 40% their mileage in weekly long runs, injury starts knocking on the door.
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I agree. Once you get even over 25 mpw you start to have some more flexibility. I have done Hal Higdon's beginner marathon program with a peak of 40 mpw with 20 mile long runs. This does assume a long base and build up with recovery week following.
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For marathons, longs runs of 20-22 miles are required no matter what level you are at. As you move towards being competitive or even elite, the long runs generally don't change in distance. Someone looking to finish a first marathon, might do just 30 miles total, with 20 of that in the long run. An elite runner might do 140 mpw, but still with 20 for the long run. The idea is to get to at least 20 miles before doing a marathon, and your overall level will determine how much mileage goes around that.

BTW, 65-70 mpw is not enough to really think about winning marathons. With very few exceptions, the people really in the hunt to win marathons are doing double that.
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At 140 MPW, wouldn't all your runs be close to 20 miles long?
I can't fathom running that far in a week.
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Actually, at 140 MPW, there still is a long run. While you average 20 miles every day, this is split into at least 2 runs on every day except the long run, which is a single 20 mile run. In fact the the long run might not be the longest day of the week, as you might do something like 10 + 15 on another day. An example of this would be as listed for Bill Rodgers in "Run with the Champions." He totalled 202 miles in a single week, his highest ever and an average of over 28 miles per day. However, his long run was just 23 miles. On other days he would do something like 16 miles in the morning and then 13-15 more in the afternoon.
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