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Benjamin Franklin, the American famously pictured on the $100 bill, has a lasting influence on American culture. Not only did Franklin contribute to the writing of the Declaration of Independence and help the American revolutionaries get help from France, he also coined many of the most common expressions in the English language as it is spoken in the United States.
For example, Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack popularized dozens of sayings, including:
"Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."
"Eat to live, not live to eat."
"Three may keep a secret if two are dead."
Also, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away."
Does an apple a day really keep the doctor away? About 250 years after Benjamin Franklin popularized the expression, a team of doctors publishing their findings in the New England Journal of Medicine took a closer look at the relationship between apple consumption and health outcomes and found some interesting connections, but failed to prove the old adage.
Separating Fact From Folksy Fiction
Dr Michael Davis of the Dartmouth School of Medicine and his colleagues took a deeper look at survey data from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Surveys to see if there were some verifiable truths about the usefulness of apples in the diet for maintaining health. It turned out that of the 8,399 people who completed the survey, a whopping 7,646 respondents reported that they did not eat an apple every day. Only a small fraction of people answering the survey, 753 in all, reported that they ate at least a small apple every day. Davis and his team set out find differences between the 753 apple eaters and the 7,646 who were not.
The survey data did not find that daily apple eaters were less likely to have seen a mental health professional in the previous 30 days before answering the survey, or that they were more able to avoid an overnight hospital stay. A first pass at the data found that apple eaters were more highly educated, more likely to be racial minority group members, and even five percent less likely to have made a doctor's appointment in the last years, but the difference was not statistically significant.
"Our findings may imperil the veracity of this time-worn (but not time-tested) adage. We estimate that in the United States, the equivalent of 26.9 million small apples are eaten daily by nearly 20 million adult apple eaters," Dr Davis and his co-authors. "While the direction of the associations we observed supports the superiority of apple eaters over non–apple eaters at avoiding the use of health care services, these differences largely lacked statistical significance."
Eating Apples Leads To Spending Less On Medication?
However, the regular apple eaters did have one advantage over people who don't enjoy them every day. The 753 people who reported enjoying the fruit every day spent an average of $228 a year less on medications. An apple a day may not keep the doctor away (or, ih the twenty-first century, make it less necessary to go the doctor), but eating apples daily seems to discourage trips to the pharmacist, or "An apple a day keeps the pharmacist away."