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Gastrointestinal bleeding shouldn’t be observed as a disease, but rather as a symptom. It is an extremely common condition, and causes of the bleeding are often related to conditions that can be cured or controlled, such as hemorrhoids.
The digestive or gastrointestinal tract includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon, rectum, and anus. Bleeding can come from one or more of these areas, and sometimes occurs without the person even noticing it. Probably the best method for the diagnosis is a simple detection of blood in the stool.

The most common causes of gastrointestinal bleeding are hemorrhoids, inflammation, colorectal cancer and polyps, diverticular disease, and duodenal ulcer.

Possible causes of bleeding in the digestive tract

Esophagitis: Stomach acid can cause an inflammation of the lower part of the esophagus (food pipe) which can lead to bleeding. This condition is called esophagitis. It does not normally occur, but sometimes a muscle between the esophagus and stomach fails to close properly and allows the return of food and stomach juices into the esophagus, which can lead to gastro-esophageal reflux disorder. In this condition, enlarged veins at the lower end of the esophagus may rupture and bleed massively.  

Mallory-Weiss syndrome: Esophageal bleeding can also be caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome, indicating a tearing in the lining of the esophagus. This tear usually results from prolonged vomiting, but also may be caused by increased pressure in the abdomen from coughing, a hiatal hernia, or childbirth.

Medications and gastric ulcer: The stomach is a frequent site of bleeding. Many medications, particularly Aspirin-containing ones, can cause stomach ulcers or inflammation, as can the consumption of alcohol. The stomach is also often the site of ulcer disease. Acute or chronic ulcers may enlarge and erode through a blood vessel, causing bleeding. The most common source of bleeding from the upper digestive tract is ulcers in the duodenum.

Tumors: Bleeding can also occur from benign tumors or from cancer of the stomach, but these tumors cause massive bleeding extremely rarely.

Hemorrhoids: Representing probably the most common cause of visible blood in the digestive tract, hemorrhoids are in fact enlarged veins in the anal area.

Colorectal cancer: This is the third leading cause of cancer and cancer-related deaths in American men and women. It may also cause bleeding at some point.
A number of other conditions can also cause gastrointestinal bleeding, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticular disease, etc.
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