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The following organs are located in the left lower abdomen or left iliac fossa:

  • Left ovary for women and left spermatic cord for men

  • Left fallopian tube

  • Sigmoid colon

  • Descending colon

  • A portion of small intestine

Dull pain in the left iliac region can be caused by any kind of trauma or accident. The other medical conditions that may result in right iliac fossa pain include ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, colic, and appendicitis.

If a patient has a history of any accident, fall, fight, or trauma, inflammation or damage to the organs or the underlying muscles located in right lower abdomen must be suspected. In this case, the patient usually complains of dull pain that may radiate to his back or down to his legs. Most of these cases end up with a diagnosis of muscular pain and are treated with analgesics and heat compression.

Before making the diagnosis, other causes of right iliac pain must be ruled out by performing relative tests and examinations.

Ectopic pregnancy: The implantation of an embryo anywhere outside the uterus is called an ectopic pregnancy. Patients typically present with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A urine test for HCG levels and an abdominal ultrasound are necessary for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

Diverticulitis: The formation of pouches in the large intestine (colon) is known as diverticula. Inflammation or infection of these pouches is called diverticulitis. Patients suffering from this disease present with pain in the left lower abdomen that worsens with movement. The patient will usually have a fever and complain of diarrhea or constipation, bloating or gas, nausea, and rarely vomiting. Blood tests, X-rays, and a CT scan are required for the confirmation of this diagnosis.

Constipation: Left iliac region pain can also be caused by constipation or large bowel obstruction. This usually happens due to a lack of fluid intake. Many individuals suffer from constipation but are unaware of it because of their busy routine. Chronic constipation results in diffused abdominal pain. It can be treated by consumiing a high fiber diet and increasing fluid intake.

Pelvic inflammatory disease: This is an inflammation of the female genital tract. This disease is less likely to present without vaginal discharge. Mostly, patients present with chronic vaginal discharge and complain of failure to conceive.

Ovarian Cyst: These are the small sac-like structures that are formed spontaneously within the ovary. These cysts may contain any fluid, gas, or semi-solid material. Ovarian cysts only develop in women and are known to cause pain in the abdomen, particularly the left lower abdomen. Most of the time, these cysts develop and resolve spontaneously. These cysts may cause symptoms when they grow or rupture. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice to diagnose ovarian cysts.

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