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Frequent need for urination can be a symptom of some very mild urinary disorders, but it can also refer to serious metabolic, neurological, urinary, and other conditions. Urgent urination is defined as a need to urinate more frequently than usual, which is accompanied by an unpleasant feeling in lower abdomen. In some persons, the urination is more frequent at night, which is called nocturia.

It should be noted that persons who suffer from urgent urination, do not necessarily have increased urine production or polyuria. In some cases, the production and excretion of urine are even decreased, which is called oliguria.

Here is a list of the most common causes of urgent urination:

Urinary Tract Infection

The most common causes of frequent urination are various infections of the urinary tract. They are caused by bacteria and can affect different parts of urinary system - urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys, but the bacteria almost always come from the outside and spread upwards.

Women are anatomically more susceptible to urinary infections than men, so they are more often affected.

The problems with frequent urination occur due to irritation and obstruction of urine flow caused by the inflammatory process in urinary organs. Other symptoms of urinary infection include painful urination, changed color of urine, lower abdominal pain, and sometimes fever.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to regulate the metabolism of sugar, with consequential increase in blood sugar levels. Normally, there is no sugar in urine, but if blood sugar levels exceed the capacity of kidneys, sugar enters the urine, along with the excess water, causing dehydration and thirst.

If urgent urination is accompanied by large amount of urine excreted, increased thirst and hunger, and fatigue, you should contact your doctor and check your blood sugar level.

Alcohol and Coffee

Alcohol increases the urine excretion and causes urgent urination by decreasing the production of vasopressin, a hormone which regulates water excretion in kidneys. Caffeine is also causing excess urination, but by different and more complex mechanisms.

Prostate Enlargement

In males over 40, the main cause of frequent urination is benign prostate enlargement. Although it can be well controlled by medications, the surgical intervention is still necessary in some cases.

Neurological Disorders

The function of the bladder is regulated by the nervous system, so different neurological disorders such as stroke, brain tumors, spinal cord injuries, and degenerative diseases can cause urgent urination.


Stressful situations can cause immediate urination or urgent need to urinate. There are many theories how and why this happens, but increased muscle tension and hyperactivity of peripheral nerves surely play an important role.

Other causes of urgent urination are various medications, bladder cancer, and excessive intake of fluids or some food that stimulate urination.

As you can see, various disorders originating from different organs can cause urgent urination. Therefore, it is necessary to note all the other symptoms you have and to report them to your physician in order to achieve a proper diagnosis.

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